The DENNISON DNA Project: Patrilineage 1

DENNISON DNA Patrilineage 1

The DENNISONs of this patrilineage who came earliest to America were evidently Scotch-Irish, since they first appear on the western frontiers of Pennsylvania and Virginia in the 1730s and 1740s, and bear the characteristic Scottish given names of this group, as well as the original Scottish form of the surname: “Denniston”. With the addition of two new project members (D-12 and D-13) whose ancestors, possibly brothers, emigrated from Ireland to Canada about 1825, we have for the first time, definite evidence of an Irish origin for this patrilineage. Both these DENNISONs emigrated from Ireland to Canada, not the US, one of them (somewhat oddly) from Cork, at Ireland’s southernmost tip, and the other from County Leitrim in the north, near Ulster. There is also circumstantial evidence that these two had both a third brother and a father who also emigrated to Canada from county Leitrim, and there are records for a DENNISON family in Leitrim which match all the Canadian immigrants in a general way.

The DENNISONs of Ireland and Scotland have been extensively researched by new project member Barry Bradfield, who has shared with me much of his evidence, the most exciting single piece of which for current project members is the record of two children baptized to Daniel and Margaret Dennison of St Mary’s Dublin: an Andrew, baptized in 1721 who died the same year, and a Daniel baptized 15Jun1722. Since this latter record corresponds almost exactly with my estimate (say 1720) of the birth date of Daniel, son of Daniel Denniston of Beverley Manor, and given the comparative rarity of the surname, this piece of evidence from surviving Dublin parish records may well be the “smoking gun” descendants of the SW Virginia lines have been looking for as a guide to further research in Ireland. Only the name of the Dublin wife is wrong—the immigrant Daniel’s wife was named Sarah—but a far-flung emigration to the western wilderness of America, and a much later second marriage there, would go a long way toward explaining why Daniel Denniston of Beverley Manor appears to have had only two surviving children.

Although I have seen a few DENNISONs in the records of the western PA counties (Chester, then its derivative counties, Lancaster and York, and later in the far western counties of Washington and Allegheny) I think it likely that all the other tested project members so far (besides these new Canadian ones) descend from one of two related families who settled in the westernmost VA county of Augusta by 1760. And even though the two family heads, Daniel and John, probably came first to PA, they appear to have left no trace there in the records.

The Southwest Virginia DENNISONs

Daniel1 Denniston, the ancestor of members Alan-05 and Randle-22, purchased land in heart of Augusta County, Virginia, in 1739, and was one of the first few hundred settlers of upper Valley of Virginia, and John1, whom I think was probably the ancestor of Lane-01 and Russell-07 (and likely also of John_A-04) was there by 1757. If I am right about John, he was the father of the Robert Denniston who removed from Augusta deeper into SW Virginia, into the VA panhandle, and it was this Robert whom I think more thorough research will show to be the father of Scott Dennison.

If I am right about the ancestry of the Virginia panhandle DENNISONs, the DNA evidence indicates that their patriarch John1, and Daniel1 (ancestor of Alan and Randle), were rather closely related. It is highly unlikely that they were father and son, both because the latter was not mentioned in the former’s will, and because the records show no associations between these men, or between their descendants. In fact, for these same reasons it’s it is also unlikely that they were uncle and nephew. But they may have been first cousins (once removed), and were probably no more distantly related than 3rd cousins.

The genealogical evidence strongly suggests that Cindy-02 is of the same line as Lane-01, thus a descendant of John1 of AugustaCoVA, but the DNA evidence belies this. However, DENNISON surname project member John G. Denison, who from the genealogical evidence appears to have descended from the same TN Dennistons as John_A-04 (John_A also being a likely descendant of John1) has brought forward evidence linking Scott, the ancestor of Lane-01, to the paterfamilias of a JeffersonCoTN family, one John Denniston who married there in 1794. Ironically, John_G-15 himself is an NPE, but his research still breaks new ground. The DNA haplotypes of Cindy-05 and John_A-04 appear to have a certain affinity with each other, and raise the possibility that Cindy, after all, belongs to the John1 line, though it is still impossible to place her as a close cousin of Lane. Since this JeffersonCoTN family of DENNISONs has been heretofore neglected, it is likely that further research will suggest that its head was yet another cousin of Daniel1 and John1, and that Cindy’s ancestor was adopted into one of Scott’s descendant families from the JeffersonCoTN line.

Meanwhile, we have two tested DENNISON descendants who look as though they ought to descend from Daniel1, but whose DNA contradicts this. In the case of Scottie, the contradiction is on the order of 100 to 1 odds against, while for Chris, the odds are more like 2000 to 1 against. OTOH Scottie and Chris are quite closely related to each other, and may well descend from another later coming DENNISON immigrant from Ireland. There are turning out to be quite a number of DENNISON families in northern Ireland, with many of these sending tendrils across the Atlantic, and because this area of Ireland is quite a small place, it is entirely plausible that the Irish families kept in loose touch with some of their American cousins, and that later comers headed for the same areas, and in some cases joined up with settled DENNISON families.

At present, for convenience of analysis, Chris has been lodged, in accordance with RD, in the Daniel1 descendancy tree of Daniel 1 Denniston of AugustaCoVA, with Daniel1ís putative great-grandson Wiley4 as his link to this descendancy, and there is fairly strong circumstantial evidence to support each link of this ancestral chain. But as a matter of fact, Chrisís DNA evidence rules out this connection. In the first place, he lacks the DYS439 mutation that marks all the other descendants of the first two AugustaCo settlers, Daniel1, and John1 (whose mutual relationship is not at present known). Chris also lacks the DYS576=17 mutation that additionally characterizes the DNA of his putative cousins Alan and Randle. There is pretty solid evidence that Alan and Randle descend from different sons of Daniel2 Denniston (the son of Daniel1, the immigrant), and Chris’s “paper trail” suggests that he descends from a third son of Daniel2. But I calculate that there is just 1 chance in 2000 or so that these two mutations could have mutated back to their original state in Chris’s line in the six generations since Daniel2.

This essentially means that somewhere in Chris’s ancestral chain there must be a broken link, and Wiley4 himself is less than solidly attached. As it is, I think that Wiley’s putative brother, John4 is a better candidate to be the ancestor of Chris, except that he cannot properly be called John4 or Wiley’s brother unless their putative father, David, is not himself a descendant of Daniel1 Denniston of Beverley Manor, in AugustaCoVA. More research, and more DNA testing, needs to be done on this line to resolve the contradiction between the DNA and the genealogical evidence.

Other American DENNISONs

There is a well-known family of early New England DENNISONs, descended from William Dennison, baptized 3Feb1571 in Bishop’s Stortford, Hertfordshire, and in fact most DENNISONs were clearly of English, and not Scottish origin, as the surname distribution maps on the DENNISON Surname page indicate. Correspondingly, only a small minority of American DENNISONs came in with the Scotch-Irish of PA, and then migrated south to greater AugustaCoVA, and I consider it extremely unlikely that they are of the same blood as the New England DENNISONs. However, none of the latter has apparently been tested, and only DNA-testing can tell us about that for sure.

DENNISON Patrilineage 1 Descendancies

These patrilineal descendancies closely follow what the members of this project have submitted, and are both plausible and generally backed by evidence. They are also generally consistent with the best published secondary sources listed in the project bibliography. Although there are areas of weakness in these lineages, due to less than exhaustive research, or to inherently sketchy records, a significant and ongoing effort is being made to ensure that what is posted here in abbreviated form represents the best current thinking on these patrilineal descent trees.

Each descendancy begins with the earliest known patriarch of a particular line, and follows the patriline down as far as it is known, and at least to its culmination in a DNA-tested descendant. Since this DNA patrilineage project is focused on tested or testable males of the patriline, these descendancy trees have generally been pruned of daughters or stepchildren of previously married wives. On the other hand, known brothers of project member’s ancestors have been included, and in some cases their patrilineal descendancies have been followed as well, to facilitate the identification of testable patrilineal descendants (living males who in most cases bear the focal surname). Where one of these collateral male lines is known to have petered out (or daughtered out), it will be flagged “no known sons”, NKSons, or words to that effect.

The information provided for each male ALLEN should be just sufficient in most cases to uniquely identify him in the USCensus and other readily available sources. They are not meant to be complete genealogies. The headnotes for each patriarch identify the principal researcher(s) of that line, and often contain links to relevant webpages, compilations, or more complete genealogical material.

The data posted below for each male of the patriline comprise (insofar as is known): his date and place of birth, date and place of death, the name(s) of his wife (or wives), and the date and place his marriage(s). The data are presented in a standardized abbreviated format designed to facilitate scanning and CTL-F searching.

Specific dates (where known) are abbreviated to year dates. Dates that aren’t known specifically, or which aren’t backed by uncontroverted evidence are qualified as either approximate (“abt”, “bef”, “aft”, or “by”), or where they are merely guesstimated, by (“say”). Approximated dates imply supporting evidence which merely fails of complete accuracy, while “say” dates are guesstimates based on typical patterns of the time, place, and social group.

Places are abbreviated to the most important jurisdictional place where records are to be found: for most US states/colonies these are counties; for New England, towns. Places should be specified only where there is either direct evidence, or overwhelming circumstantial evidence, that a vital event occurred in that place and none other, and they shouldn’t be over-specified with respect to the actual supporting evidence.

The yDNA-tested male descendants in whom these descendancies culminate are flagged below with the ShortName of the Principal Researcher of their line (the person who represents the descendant’s haplotype), and by the Project# for the membership, for example, Alan-05.

Notes about the ySTR DNA mutations that mark particular lineages have been interwoven below in red text. Notes about upstream mutations distinctive of particular family sub-branches have been inserted in the descendancy at the point at which they begin to be relevant, and where those same mutations have been inherited by tested descendants, this has been noted right after the name(s) of the tested descendant and Principal Researcher of the line. Please note, however, the careful qualifications in these DNA notes. Most inferences drawn from DNA evidence are probabilistic in nature and one needs to keep an open mind about alternative interpretations, just as one does with the genealogy itself.

Doubtful ancestral links or children are outlined in yellow, e.g. |.

SOUTHERN DENNISONs

1--Daniel Denniston of Augusta County, Virginia, born say 1688

Sources: Alan Denison, Randle Dennison (see RD), and John Robb (see JBR-DENNISON).

Chris Dennison’s line has been attached, below, to that of Wiley4 (David3, Daniel2, Daniel1), and he, Randle, and John Robb, are the sources for that. However, based on Chris’s DNA results, there is virtually no chance that he descends from the immigrant, Daniel1. Chris has been placed here simply because it still appears that Wiley4, and an unknown portion of his descendancy, does belong here, and it facilitates analysis to keep this line together for now.

1--Daniel Denniston (say 1688 - bef 1Dec1749 AugustaCoVA)  m. Sarah c1717

The mutation DYS439+ links Daniel’s line to the patriarch [Robert?], below.

The mutation DYS576- marks the descendancy of Daniel himself.

|--2-Ann Denniston (abt 1718 -);  m. Patrick GILLESPIE;

|--2-Daniel Denniston Jr (say 1720 - abt 1793 FayetteCoKY)  m. Elizabeth _?_

|   |--3-Margaret Denniston (bapt Jan1745/1746 AugustaCoVA -)

|   |--3-Ann Denniston (bapt 2Aug1747 AugustaCoVA -)

|   |--3-Mary Denniston (bapt Feb1748/1749 AugustaCoVA -)

|   |--3-John Denniston (abt Jan1751 AugustaCoVA - 1824)  m1. Mary KING

|   |   |--4-John Dennison (abt 1779 RockinghamCoVA - 1834 AugustaCoVA)

|   |   |   ---m1. abt 1800 Hannah HENDERSON

|   |   |   |--5-Washington H. Dennison (say 1805 AugustaCoVA -)  m. Rebecca GEATING 1826

|   |   |   ---m2. 1811 Martha PARRIS

|   |   |--4-Daniel Dennison (abt 1787 AugustaCoVA - bef 1860 [KY?])  m. Nancy McFALL

|   |   |--4-Samuel M. Dennison (say 1792 AugustaCoVA - aft 1830)

|   |   |   ---m1. Betsey PARRIS 1816, m2. Nancy PARRY 1828 (4 sons in 1830, all by 1st wife)

|   |--3-Sarah Deniston (abt 1754 AugustaCoVA -)  m. James DAVISON

|   |--3-Elizabeth Dennison (abt 1757 AugustaCoVA - bef 1824);  m. Andrew DOUGLAS

|   |--3-David Dennison (abt 1759 AugustaCoVA - 1Oct1823)  m. Mary Ann DOUGLAS

|   |   |--4-James [D|B]. Dennison (1794 KY - 1879 BatesCoMO)

|   |   |   ---m. 1817 Elizabeth WARE, in MadisonCoOH

|   |   |   |--5-Allen B Dennison (1827 MadisonCoOH - 1906 MadisonCoOH)

|   |   |       ---m1. Isabella DOUNTZ

|   |   |   |   |--6-Robert Anderson Dennison (1861 MadisonCoOH - 1916 AlbertaCAN)

|   |   |   |   |   ---m. Emma Jane VanSYCKEL

|   |   |   |   |   |--7-Harrison Allen Dennison (1889 FayetteCoOH - 1949 FranklinCoOH)

|   |   |   |   |   |    ---m. Anna Ruth JUSTICE—sons: Robert Allen, Roger McGill

|   |   |--4-John Dennison (1798 BourbonCoKY - 1853 FranklinCoOH)

|   |   |   ---m. 1824 Jane MOREHEAD, in FranklinCoOH

|   |   |   |--5-James W. Dennison (1830 FranklinCoOH - 1903 FranklinCoOH)

|   |   |   |   ---m. 1852 Catharine WARD, in FranklinCoOH

|   |   |   |    sons with NKSPD: Milton W.(1858), William W., James Albert, & Charles

|   |   |   |--5-Burr Wright Dennison (1834 FranklinCoOH - aft1885)

|   |   |   |   ---m. 1854 Leah Jean DEMOREST, in FranklinCoOH

|   |   |   |   sons with NKSPD: John Wiley(1859), Isaac Willie, James Albert, & Irwin Wright

|   |   |   |   |--6-Edwin Burr Dennison (1862 FranklinCoOH - 1943 BourbonCoKS)

|   |   |   |   |   ---m. 1885 Lois Ann HARTLEY, in BourbonCoKS

|   |   |   |   |   |--7-William Irl Dennison (1888 KingmanCoKS - 1962 BourbonCoKS)

|   |   |   |   |   |   ---m. 1910 Annie Maglin HOGUE; several sons

|   |   |   |--5-Milton White Dennison (1837 FranklinCoOH - 1882 FranklinCoOH)

|   |   |   |   ---m. 1866 Mary Ann MYERS, in FranklinCoOH; son John R (1871)

|   |   |--4-Huston Dennison (1802 BourbonCoKY - 1846 FultonCoIL)

|   |   |   ---m. 1825 Sarah ROBEY, in MadisonCoOH

|   |   |   |--5-Martin Dennison (1826 MadisonCoOH - 1905 WashingtonCoIA)

|   |   |   |   ---m. 1852 Sarah HOXWORTH, in KnoxCoIL

|   |   |   |   sons with NKSPD: John W.(1859), Francis Marion (1864), Lewis Harley (1874), Baseol Everett

|   |   |   |   |--6-Edward Huston Dennison (1856 WashingtonCoIA - 1934 ScottsBluffCoNE)

|   |   |   |   |   ---m. 1877 Mary ORBAN, in WashingtonCoIA; son William w. at least 1 grandson

|   |   |   |   |--6-David Milton Dennison (1866 WashingtonCoIA - 1945 JohnsonCoIA)

|   |   |   |   |   ---m. 1892 Jane Ann RICE, in WashingtonCoIA; sons Charles Martin, Cecil Maude, Max Dale

|   |   |   |--5-John Huston Dennison (1836 FranklinCoOH - 1924 KnoxCoIL)

|   |   |   |   ---m. 1862 Theresa Callie HUBER, in KnoxCoIL; sons Silas H. (1865), Amos L, Leven W.

|   |   |--4-Wiley Denison (say 1800 - say 1834)

|   |   |   ---m. 1827 Sally WILSON, in MadisonCoOH

|   |   |   | --5-John Denison (abt 1830 - 1932)

|   |   |   |   ---m. 1852 Margaret WICKELL, in MadisonCoOH

|   |   |   |   |--6-William Roland Denison (1853 MadisonCoOH - 1920 PrattCoKS);

|   |   |   |   |   ---m. Margaret J. LEWIS; son William H.(1873 in IA)

|   |   |   |   |--6-George McDowell Denison (1858 ClarkCoMO - 1926 KeokukCoIA);

|   |   |   |   |   ---m. 1880 Ella Emma ROWE, in KeokukCoIA

|   |   |   |   |   |--7-James Burton Denison (1881 IowaCoIA - 1954 VermillionCoIL);

|   |   |   |   |   |    ---m. 1905 Emma Gertrude ECKHART, WashingtonCoIA; sons Claude Wayne, Carl Everette

|   |   |   |   |   |--7-John Elmer Denison (1890 PrattCoKS - 1954 VermillionCoIL);

|   |   |   |   |   ---m. 1914 Carrie Crawford PLECKER in JohnsonCoIA;

|   |   |   |   |        sons Boyd Elmer (1918), Dallas Eugene, Donald Irvin, Richard Dean

|   |   |   |   |   |--7-George Wiley Denison (1892 PrattCoKS - 1974 IA)

|   |   |   |   |   |    ---m. 1916 Bessie Mae AGGSON; sons George Sherm (1921), Ross Dale (1923, KeokukCoIA)

|   |   |   |   |   |--7-Otto Willie Dennison (1898 KeokukCoIA - 1983 LinnCoIA);

|   |   |   |   |   |   ---m. 1917 Celesta Flossie HRADEK, in JohnsonCoIA;

|   |   |   |   |   |   |--8-Merlin Otto Dennison (1918 WashingtonCoIA - 1969 JohnsonCoIA)

|   |   |   |   |   |   |    ---m. 1946 Sylvia Ann KRCHMAR

|   |   |   |   |   |   |   |--9-Gary Allen Dennison    *** Chris-23 ***
                                                        (has mutation DYS439- (not +), and lacks DYS576-)

|   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |-10-Christopher Allen Dennison    

|   |   |   |   |   |--7-Wayne Denison (1901 JohnsonCoIA - 1973 KeokukCoIA);

|   |   |   |   |   |   ---m. 1923 Gladys E. HALL; son Gerald Wayne

|   |   |   |   |   |--7-Henry Evert Denison (1903 KeokukCoIA - 1968);

|   |   |   |   |   |   ---m. 1923 Hazel Esther HARRIS; no known sons

|   |   |   |   |   |--7-Earl Denison (1906 IA -)

|   |   |   |   |   |   ---m. 1926 Maud Laura HALL; several sons

|   |   |   |--5-McDowell White Denison (1831 FountainCoIN - 1905 SheridanCoKS)

|   |   |   |   ---m. 1854 Lucinda CLARRIDGE, in MadisonCoOH

|   |   |   |   |--6- Savernus Augustus Denison (1855 WashingtonCoIA -)

|   |   |   |   |   ---m. 1880 Clarissa Saline WALKER; son Ray (1895)

|   |   |   |   |--6-William Wiley Denison (1856 WashingtonCoIA - 1941 WashingtonCoIA

|   |   |   |   |   ---m. 1881 Mary Minerva MEEKS, in WashingtonCoIA; sons Elmer Linn, Russell Theodore

|   |   |   |   |--6-Luther Courtney Denison (1858 WashingtonCoIA - 1922 WashingtonCoIA)

|   |   |   |   |   ---m1. Sarah Anna McMURRAY; no known sons

|   |   |   |   |--6-Denver Harvey Denison (1866 WashingtonCoIA - ? WashingtonCoIA)

|   |   |   |   |   ---m. Rilla JARVIS; no known sons

|   |   |--4-Nancy Mille Dennison (1810 MadisonCoOH -)

|   |   |   ---m. 1829 Samuel C. CREATH, in MadisonCoOH

|   |   |    Samuel CREATH was a brother of John Creath, guardian to John & McDowell Dennison

|   |--3-James Denniston (abt 1761 - abt 1831)  m. Hannah FULTON

|   |   |--4-Daniel David Dennison (1794 - 1832 BourbonCoKY)  m. Elizabeth MORROW

|   |   |   |--5-John Dennison (1827 BourbonCoKY - 1878 FayetteCoKY)  m. Malinda MORROW

|   |   |   |   |--6-John J. Dennison (1854 BourbonCoKY - 1925 KY)  m1. Julia Ann RENICK

|   |   |   |   |   |--7-Abraham Renick Denison (1886 BourbonCoKY - 1967 ButlerCoOH)

|   |   |   |   |        ---m1. Tinnie Emma COLLINS

|   |   |   |   |   |   | --8-Woodrow Wilson Dennison (1919 BourbonCoKY -)  m. Ellen Jane BEYER

|   |   |   |   |   |   |   | --9-Robert Dennison  m. Kim PITCHER

|   |   |   |   |         ---m2. Margaret CASTATOR—sons: William Gobel, Howard Herman

|   |   |--4-John Dennison (abt 1790 - 1829 BourbonCoKY)  m. Rebecca MARSHALL

|   |   |   |--5-Shelby James Dennison (1815 BourbonCoKY -)  m. Susan BARKER

|   |   |   |   |--6-Jacob S. Dennison (1842 MonroeCoMO -)

|   |   |   |        ---m. Sarah Jane _?_;  sons: James, Eddie, George

|   |   |   |   |--6-also sons: Dillard, Thomas, Willard Filmore, Robert

|   |--3-Eleanor Dennison (abt 1763 - bef 1825)  m. William RICE

|   |--3-Isabella Helena Denniston (1765 - bef 1833)  m. Hamilton ATCHISON Sr.

|   |--3-William Denison (1767 AugustaCoVA - 1838 LawrenceCoIL)  m. Margaret DUNLAP

|   |   |--4-Robert Denison (1794 - 1863)  m1. Nancy EASTHAM

|   |   |   |--5-Braxton Eason Denison (1823 LawrenceCoIL - 1903 LawrenceCoIL)

|   |   |   |   ---m. Harriet Malinda JORDAN

|   |   |   |   |--6-Victor M. Denison (1870 LawrCoIL - 1942 LawrCoIL)  m. Emma STIVERS

|   |   |   |   |   |--7-Owen Foster Denison (1893 LawrenceCoIL-1947 LawrenceCoIL)  

|   |   |   |   |   |   ---m1. Jennie Rae COLEMAN

|   |   |   |   |   |   | --8-Robert Patrick Denison  

|   |   |   |   |   |--7-Hugh Braxton Denison (1899 LawrenceCoIL-1952)  

|   |   |   |   |   |   ---m. Dorothy HOOD—son Braxton

|   |   |   |   |   |--7-Ellis Mack Denison (1903 LawrenceCoIL - 1953 WabashCoIL)

|   |   |   |   |   |    ---m. Hazel Frances BUCHANAN—sons Ellis Mack Jr, Donald

|   |   |--4-Daniel (1795 FayetteCoKY - 1868 WapelloCoIA)  m. Sally Scott RIGGS

|   |   |   |--5-William S. Denison (1830 IL - aft 1900)  m. Hannah J. _?_

|   |   |   |   |--6-Elvadus Scott Denison (1857 IA - 1912 KS)

|   |   |   |        ---m. Harriettia Maye RICARDS

|   |   |   |   |   |--7-John Francis Denison (1900 ChaseCoKS - 1989 MorrisCoKS)

|   |   |   |   |   |    ---m. Harriet Daisy EDWARDS;  sons: John Francis Jr., Charles Scott

|   |   |   |   |   |--7-Benjamin Scott Denison (1905 ChaseCoKS - 1987 JoaquinCoCA)

|   |   |   |   |   |    ---m. Frances Victoria ALBIN;  son: Benjamin Scott Jr.

|   |   |--4-Alexander D. Denison (1807 FayetteCoKY - 1871 LawrenceCoIL)  m. Mary Ann CRANE

|   |   |   |--5-William Dunlap Denison (1850 LawrenceCoIL - 1931 LawrenceCoIL)

|   |   |        ---m. Sallie Sappington RYAN

|   |   |   |   |--6-Raymond Ryan Denison (1885 LawrenceCoIL-1943 RichmondCoVA)

|   |   |   |        ---m. Barbara CROW

|   |   |   |   |   |--7-Raymond Robert Denison (1913 CrowWingCoMN - 1987 HennepinCoMN)

|   |   |   |   |   |   ---m. Pauline Marie FARMER

|   |   |   |   |   |    |--8-sons Robert John, Thomas Haigh, William Walter, Charles Raymond

|   |   |   |   |--6-Roy Everett Denison (1892 LawrenceCoIL - 1947 LawrenceCoIL);  m. Ruth ADAMS

|   |   |   |   |   |--7-Roy Adams Denison (1918 LawrenceCoIL - 1977 ChampaignCoIL)

|   |   |   |   |   |   ---m1. Ruth Melva HUMPHREY

|   |   |   |   |   |   | --8-Alan Jay Denison    *** Alan-05 ***
                                                                 (mutations DYS439+, 576-)

|   |   |   |   |--6-Walter Harold Denison (1895 LawrenceCoIL - 1953 LawrenceCoIL);  m. Nina M. LOWE

|   |   |   |--5-Henry Howard Denison (1856 - 1902);  m. Mary E. SAUMS

|   |   |--4-George Madison Denison (1809 - 1846)  m. Isabella UNDERWOOD

|   |--3-Thomas Denison (abt Dec1768 - d.aft 1844)

|   |   |--m. 1792 Jane DOUGLAS, in BourbonCoKY

|   |   |--4-James Henry Denison (1794 BourbonCoKY - 1845 MadisonCoOH)

|   |   |   |--m. 1819 Margaret ALKIRE

|   |   |   |--5-Griffin A Denison (1819 MadisonCoOH - 1863 Nashville, MadisonCoTN)

|   |   |   |   |--m1. 1842 Catherine WICKELL, in MadisonCoOH

|   |   |   |   |--6-John William Dennison (1842 MadisonCoOH - 1924 ClarkCoMO)

|   |   |   |   |   |--m. 1868 Rozilla THOMAS, in PickawayCoOH

|   |   |   |   |   |--7-Edgar Griffin Dennison (1869 MadisonCoOH - 1935 StClairCoMO)

|   |   |   |   |   |   |--m1. Lenora NEWMAN

|   |   |   |   |   |   |--sons: John Ernest, John Dale, Elmer Newman

|   |   |   |   |   |--7-Francis Joseph (1871 MadisonCoOH - 1945 LeeCoIA)

|   |   |   |   |   |   |--m. 1897 Virginia MOSLEY

|   |   |   |   |   |   |--son: Raymond Mosley

|   |   |   |   |   |--7-Warner Huston Dennison (1875 MadisonCoOH - 1953 MorganCoIL)

|   |   |   |   |   |   |--married twice—NKSons

|   |   |   |   |   |--7-Ernest Howard Dennison (1877 MadisonCoOH - 1955 SchuylerCoMO)

|   |   |   |   |   |   |--m. 1898 Lutie Myrtle RANDLE

|   |   |   |   |   |   |--8-Ernest Howard Dennison

|   |   |   |   |   |   |   | --9-T. Randle Dennison     *** Randle-22 ***
                                                                             (mutations DYS439+, 576-)

|   |   |   |   |--6-Samuel Huston Denison (1851 MadisonCoOH - 1920 BlaineCoOK)

|   |   |   |   |   |--m. 1879 Melissa Belle BLANTON

|   |   |   |   |   |--sons: Howard Griffin, John William, Franklin Houston, Leonard Green

|   |   |   |   |--6-Greene Henry Denison (1854 MadisonCoOH - 1908 MadisonCoOH)

|   |   |   |   |   |--m. 1877 Susan A BAUGHMAN, in MadisonCoOH

|   |   |   |   |   |--son: Robert N

|   |   |   |   |--m2. 1859 Isabella SCHNELL, in MadisonCoOH

|   |   |   |   |--6-Joseph McClelland Denison (1862 MadisonCoOH - 1940 MadisonCoOH)

|   |   |   |   |   |--m. 1889 Louisa B GRAHAM, in MadisonCoOH

|   |   |   |   |   |--son: Griffin Denison

|   |   |   |--5-Henry Green Clay Denison (1820 MadisonCoOH - 1907 MadisonCoOH)

|   |   |   |   |--m. 1848 Ellen J COOK, in MadisonCoOH

|   |   |   |   |--sons: William H, John W

|   |   |   |--5-John William Dennison (1822 OH - 1920 MadisonCoOH)

|   |   |   |   |--m. Hester A SCHRIVER

|   |   |   |   |--sons: James A, John A

|   |   |   |--5-Thomas Denison (Aug1825 - Oct1825)

|   |   |   |--5-James Monroe Denison (1827 MadisonCoOH - 1921 PickawayCoOH)

|   |   |   |   |--m. 1849 Sevena WARREN, in MadisonCoOH

|   |   |   |   |--sons: William H, Henry Harrison, Abraham Jonathan, Albert Sherman, Charles, George

|   |   |   |--5-William H Dennison (1831 MadisonCoOH - 1906 FranklinCoOH)

|   |   |   |   |--m. 1857 Alice Emeline SALE, in MadisonCoOH

|   |   |   |   |--son: Isaac M

|   |   |   |--5-Harvey Denison (1832 MadisonCoOH -)

|   |   |   |--5-Abraham Denison (1835 MadisonCoOH - 1863 at Chickmauga)

|   |   |--4-Thomas Denison (abt 1798 - abt 1823 MadisonCoOH)  m. 1818 Elizabeth KERR—NSons

|   |   |--4-Joseph Denison (abt 1800 BourbonCoKY - 1849 SchuylerCoIL)

|   |   |   |--m. 1825 Martha MOORE, FayetteCoOH

|   |   |   |—sons: George W, Benjamin, and Jasper Moore Denison

|   |   |--4-John Denison (abt 1802 BourbonCoKY - aft 1800)

|   |   |   |--m. 1832 Barbara MOORE, FayetteCoOH

|   |   |   |--5-Philip Moore Denison (1833 FayetteCoOH - 1913 DarkeCoOH)

|   |   |   |   |--m. 1864 Rhoda WARREN

|   |   |   |   |—sons:Sherman Moore, John E, William Anthony, Edward Harry, & Clark A Denison

|   |   |--4-George Washington Denison (1813 MadisonCoOH - 1843 MadisonCoOH)—NSons

|   |--3-Catherine Denison b.1770, d.aft 1850

|   |--3-Daniel Dennison b.abt 1772, d.Nov1824

invisible writing

1--James A. Denison of Augusta County, Virginia, born abt 1829

Source: Scottie Dennison, who has published key source material
  for this family on her DENNISON website.

1--James A. Denison (abt 1829 - 1859)  m. Jane GIVEN 1854

|--2-John Elliot Denison (1858 NicholasCoWV - 1922 RockbridgeCoVA)

|   ---m. Fannie Shelton HENDERSON

|   |--3-Walter Elliot Bruce Denison (1900 RockbridgeCoVA - 1984 StauntonVA)

|   |   ---m. Vernie B. McCRORY

|   |   |--4-Boyd Emory Dennison (1921 RockbridgeCoVA - 1978 StauntonVA)

|   |   |   ---m. Rose Chambers GOODE

|   |   |   |--5-John Emory Dennison     *** Scottie-06 ***
                                                                         (mutation DYS576-)

invisible writing

1--John Dennison of Augusta County, Virginia, born abt 1820

Source: MaryJane Michael

1--John Dennison (abt 1820VA - Mar1856 AugustaCoVA)

---m. 1840 Sarah LANDES, in AugustaCoVA

|--2-William Harvey Dennison (1843 VA - 1929 AugustaCoVA)

|   ---m1. 1870 Sarah Caroline REEVES, in AugustaCoVA

|   |--3-William R Dennison (1872 VA - 1942 StLouisMO)

|   |--3-John Emet Dennison (1874 VA - 1935 JeffersonCoWV)

|   ---m2. 1880 Margaret Vance WILLIAMS, in BathCoVA

|   |--3-Charles William Dennison (1886 VA - 1925 MontgomeryCoOH)

|   |--3-Odis Benjamin Dennison (1887 RockinghamCoVA - 1946 PiattCoIL)

|   |--3-Walter Franklin Dennison (1890 - 1969 AugustaCoVA)

|   |--3-Hensel Givens Dennison (1892 AugustaCoVA - 1983 AugustaCoVA)

|   |   ---m. 1916 Nellie Irene SHULL

|   |   |--4-Garland Cornell Dennison     *** MaryJane-34 ***
                                                                                    (mutation DYS576-)

|   |--3-James Warren Dennison (1894 - 1895)

|   |--3-Roy Holt Dennison (1897 - 1992 BerksCoPA)

|   |--3-Elwood Friend Dennison (1907 VA - 1996 BotetourtCoVA)

|--2-M J Dennison (abt 1846 - aft 14Jul1860)

|--2-John M Dennison (abt 1849 - 1853 AugustaCoVA)

|--2-David A Dennison (abt 1852 - 1853 AugustaCoVA)

invisible writing

1-[Robert?, Joseph??] Denniston of Washington County, Virginia, born abt 1750

Robert was likely the (grand)son of the John1 Denniston found in AugustaCo by the mid-1750s.

Sources: John Robb, on John1 of Augusta and his sons (Appendix A of JBR-DENNISON),
and on Robert of WashingtonCoVA; Cindy Denniston’s extensive descendancy for Scott;
and Lane Teaff with material on his son, James.

1--[Robert?, Joseph??] (abt 1750 - bef 14Jan1817)

---m1. Margaret Dougherty abt 1777

The mutation DYS439+ links this descendancy of [Robert?] to that of Daniel Denniston, above.

However, because these descendants lack the DYS576- mutation, they’re not descendants of Daniel.

|--2-William Denniston (say 1785 -)  m. Rachel _?_ say 1810

|--2-Samuel Denniston (say 1790 -)

---[m2. Rachel SCOTT?] say 1793

|--2-Scott Denniston (1794 WashingtonCoVA - 1882 RussellCoVA)

|   ---m. Sarah Hannah UMBARGER 3Sep1820

|   |--3-Leah Denniston (abt 1821 - abt 1836 SmythCoVA)

|   |--3-Robert Denniston (abt 1823 WashingtonCoIN -)  m. Annie Eliza PATRICK

|   |   |--4-John L Denniston (abt 1855 SmythCoVA -)

|   |   |--4-James W Denniston (abt 1857 SmythCoVA -)

|   |   |--4-Margaret Ann Denniston (1861 KY - 1934 MenifeeCoKY)

|   |   |    ---m. James Philip DENNISTON (son of her Uncle James)

|   |--3-Rachel Denniston (1824 WashingtonCoIN- 1890 RussellCoVA)  m. Hezekiah PATRICK

|   |--3-Sarah J. Denniston (abt 1826 WashingtonCoIN - 1890)  m. William Samuel MOORE

|   |--3-Philip Jefferson Denniston (1828 WytheCoVA - 1908 MenifeeCoKY)

|   |   ---m. Martha Vermillion JOHNSON 1853

|   |   |--4-George Washington Denniston (1855 RussellCoVA - 1902 MenifeeCoKY)

|   |   |   ---m1. Nancy HOGAN—son George

|   |   |   ---m3. Martha MORAN

|   |   |   |--5-Elbert Franklin Denniston (1878 - 1958 MenifeeCoKY)  m. Melinda CASTLE

|   |   |   |   |--6-Otha Charles Denniston (1904-1982)  m. Evaline Esther MARTIN

|   |   |   |   |   |--7-sons: George Franklin, Charles David, & Ronald Martin

|   |   |   |   |--6-George Onan Denniston (1910-1977)  m. Mabel STINNETT

|   |   |   |   |   |--7-sons: George Robert & Billy G.

|   |   |   |--5-Forecher B. Denniston (1892 KY - 1958)  m. Nancy COURTNEY

|   |   |   |   |--6-Fred Denniston Jr  m2. Frances WAGONER—son Fred G.

|   |   |--4-Christopher Columbus Denniston (1858 RussellCoVA - 1920)  m. Madge WELLS

|   |   |   |--5-Thomas H. Denniston (1878 - 1920)  m1. Hazel GREEN

|   |   |   |   |--6-Edward Denniston  m. Ruth BRADLEY—son Charles Edward

|   |   |   |--5-Sewall Moody Denniston (1880 - 1950)  m. May Lou CAMPBELL

|   |   |   |   |--6-Jack Denniston (1904-1964)—son Sewall

|   |   |   |--5-Leonard W Denniston (1882 - 1925)  m. Rosie RUTHERFORD

|   |   |   |   |--6-Patrick D.—sons: Leonard,Michael,Denny,Omer,Homer,Robert,Jack,Donald

|   |   |   |--5-Richard J Denniston m. Mildred—sons: Robert &James

|   |   |   |--5-Charles Oren Denniston (1894-1958)  m. Eunice _?_—sons: Stanley &Jack

|   |   |   |--5-William Arthur Denniston—son Gene Carl

|   |   |   |--5-James Bruce Denniston  m. Alice Gertrude HUTTON—son Thomas Bruce

|   |   |--4-Joe Clinton Denniston (1870 - 1962)  m. Nancy Anne GRIFFEY

|   |   |   |--5-Arlie Denniston (1892 - 1972)  m. Lula BROWN—sons: Norval & Thomas C.

|   |--3-Mary E. Denniston (1831 WytheCoVA -1811)  m. Thomas Preston Jones 1858

|   |--3-Margaret Denniston (abt 1832 SmythCoVA -);  m. William TAYLOR

|   |--3-John R. Denniston (abt 1834 SmythCoVA -);  m. Anna Eliza THOMAS

|   |--3-Regina Denniston (1836 SmythCoVA - 1892 RussellCoVA)  m. John William STALLARD

|   |--3-James W. Denniston (abt 1837 SmythCoVA - 1864 FtDelawareDE) 1858

|   |   ---m. 1858 Sarah Jane McGRAW

|   |    |--4-William Robert Denniston (1861 SmythCoVA - 1941 RedRiverCoTX)

|   |         ---m. 1884 Sarah Ellen PAXTON

|   |   |   |--5-Paul Arthur Denison (1889 AdamsCoIL - 1955)  m1. Ida Bell DISKER

|   |   |   |   |--6-sons: Charles Tracy, Leroy Paul, James Robert

|   |   |   |--5-Glenn Davis Denison (1891 AdamsCoIL - 1950)  m. Dorcia BARNHAM

|   |   |   |   |--6-sons: Philip Eugene, Ray Glenn

|   |   |   |--5-Carl William Denison (1896 RedRiverCoTX - aft 1963)  m. 1919 Beulah EAVES

|   |   |   |   |--6-Carl William Denison Jr (1921 CrosbyCoTX - 1991 WilliamsonCoTX);

|   |   |   |        ---m. Emily Violet SITTON—son Robert Lawrence

|   |   |   |   |--6-Howard Gilmer Denison   *** Lane-01 ***   
                                                                  (mutations DYS439+, 449+, CDYa-)

|   |   |   |--5-Dallas Denver Snavely Denison (1900 RedRiverCoTX - 1892 TerryCoTX)

|   |   |        ---m. Ida Gladys CONDRON

|   |   |   |   |--6-James Dickey Denison

|   |   |   |--5-James Russell Paxton Denison (1904 RedRiverCoTX - 2003 AR)

|   |   |        ---m. Glenda CRAWFORD

|   |   |   |   |--6-John Shannon Denison

|   |   |   |   |--6-Russell Paxton Denison   *** Russell-07 ***
                                                                (mutations DYS439+, 449+, CDYa-, CDYb+)

|   |   |--4-James Philip Denniston (1862 RussellCoVA - 1932 MenifeeCoKY)

|   |       ---m. 1863 Margaret Ann DENNISTON (dau of his Uncle Robert)

|   |   |   |--5-James Edgar Denniston (1893 MorganCoKY - 1878 LuzerneCoPA)

|   |   |       ---m1. Stella LITTLE

|   |   |   |   |--6-Raymond Denison (1901 PowellCoKY - 1989 GreeneCoOH)  m. Imogene PECK

|   |   |   |   |   |--7-Chuck Denniston

|   |   |       ---m2. Eva STAPLETON

|   |   |   |   |--6-John Henry Denison (1925 PowellCoKY - 1989 AllenCoIN)

|   |   |   |        ---m. Dorothy POWERS

|   |   |   |   |   |--7-John Allen Denniston

|   |   |   |   |--6-Levi Denison (1932 BathCoKY - 2004 WabashCoIN)  m. Sheila Ann SALYER

|   |   |   |   |   |--7-Jeffrey A. Denniston

|   |   |   |   |   |--7-Steven J. Denniston   *** Cindy-02 ***
                                                            (mutations DYS464, 456+, 570+, CDYa-, CDYb-2)

|   |   |   |   |   |--7-Rodney K. Denniston

|   |--3-Helen C. Denniston (1840 SmythCoVA -1922)  m1. Fullen TAYLOR, m2. Preston JONES

|   |   |   |--5-Russell G. Denniston (1895 KY - 1969 MenifeeCoKY)  m. Ada Bell HUR

|   |   |   |   |--6-Willard Denniston

|   |   |   |   |--6-Wilburn Denniston

|   |   |   |   |--6-Milburn Denniston

|   |   |   |--5-Leonard Denniston (1899 KY - 1969 KY)

|   |   |   |--5-Robert F Denniston (1887 KY -)  m. Mary Lee

|--2-John Denniston (say 1798 -)

invisible writing

invisible writing

1--John Denniston of Virginia, say 1770

SourcesJohn A. Dennison and John Robb,
with important evidence provided by John G. Denison.

1--John Denniston (say 1770 VA - bef 4Jul1842)

|--m. 1794 Phebe Williams, in JeffersonCoTN

|--2-James Dennison (abt 1812 TN - after 1880)

|   |--m. 1833 Emeline MILLIKEN, in GraingerCoTN

|   |--3-Samuel M Dennison (abt 1835 TN -)  m. bef 1890 Lizzie _?_

|   |--3-William Dennison (abt 1849 TN - aft 10Oct1887)

|   |--3-[James?] Allen Dennison (1851 TN - aft 1920)

|   |   |--m1. 1873 Mary A[gnes? or “Nancy”] HILL, in HamblenCoTN

|   |   |--4-Samuel Lillard Dennison (1881 BristolTN - 1942 New OrleansLA)

|   |   |   |--m3. abt 1921 Angeline _?_

|   |   |   |   |--5-John Allen Dennison (1924 FtWorthTX - BeaumontTX 2006)

|   |   |   |   |   |   |--6-John Allen Dennison   *** John_A-04 ***
                                                                                    (mutations DYS439+, CDYa-, 570+, 456--)

|   |   |--m2. 1890 Mary E. TRAVIS, in HamblenCoTN

|   |   |--m3. 1904 Maggie MEADOWS, in HamblenCoTN

NORTHERN TIER (& IRISH) DENNISONs

invisible writing

1--[?John Dennison of county Leitrim, Ireland, born abt 1758]

Source: Barry Bradfield, who has researched DENNISONs extensively in Ireland
  and elsewhere)

1--[?John Dennison (abt 1758 Ireland - 1842 NewBrunswickCAN)]

|--m. say 1780, Mary CAMPBELL]

The mutation DYS446- links this line to that of Barry-13, below.

|--2-John Dennison (say 1785 co.LeitrimIRE - 1851 OntarioCAN)

|   ---m. 1819 Catherine ALEXANDER, in IRE

|   |--3-Alexander Dennison (1817 co.LeitrimIRE -)

|   |--3-John Dennison (1819 co.LeitrimIRE -)

|   |--3-Robert Dennison (1820 co.LeitrimIRE - 1905 HuronCoCAN)

|   |--3-James Dennison (1826 IRE - 1897 CalhounCoMI)

|   |--3-Thomas Dennison (abt 1838 OntarioCAN - OntarioCAN)

|   |--3-Ingram Dennison (1843 OntarioCAN - 1925 ShiawasseeCoMI)

|   |--3-William Dennison (1844 PeelCo,OntarioCAN - 1915 HuronCo,OntarioCAN)

|   |   |--m. 1873 Martha Ann INGRAM, in DetroitMI

|   |   |--4-William John Dennison (1874 HuronCo,OntarioCAN - 1945 OntarioCAN)

|   |   |--4-Alexander Isaiah Dennison (1878 -)  m. 1900 Clara Edith CLARK

|   |   |--4-James Thomas Dennison (1880 HuronCo,OntarioCAN -) m. 1910 Maude JOHNSTON

|   |   |--4-Alfred Wesley Dennison (1883 HuronCo,OntarioCAN -) m. 1903 Lillian M. WILTSIE

|   |   |--4-Joseph Edward Dennison (1885 OntarioCAN - 1960 OntarioCAN)

|   |   |   |--m.1907 Mable Clara COLLINS, in Palmerston,OntarioCAN

|   |   |   |--5-Louis Claire Dennison

|   |   |   |   |--6-Robert Edward Dennison     *** Barry-13 ***
                                                                                    (also downstream mutations DYS458+, 481-, and 576-)

|   |   |--4-Robert Edwin Dennison (1896 OntarioCAN); m. 1920 Marjory HILBORN

invisible writing

1--[_?_]

Source: Barry Bradfield, and Elaine Baker, who is a direct descendant of 2-James.

1--[_?_]

The mutation DYS446- links this line to that of Barry-12, above.

|--2-James Dennison (abt 1801 CorkIRE - 1869 PeelCo,OntarioCAN)

|   ---m. 1843 Mary Ann McBRIDE, in OntarioCAN

|   |--3-William Alexander Dennison (1851 YorkCo,OntarioCAN - 1922 PeelCo,OntarioCAN)

|   |   |--m. 1879 Anne Elizabeth DOSEWELL, in PeelCo,OntarioCAN

|   |   |--4-William Wesley Dennison (1883 PeelCo, OntarioCAN - 1968 Hope, BritishColumbiaCAN)

|   |   |   |--m. 1907 Annie Josephine BROWN, in PeelCo,OntarioCAN

|   |   |   |--5-Sidney Dennison

|   |   |   |   |--6-Sidney Robert Dennison     *** Barry-12 (Sidney Dennison) ***
                                                                                    (still the RPH, despite mutation DYS446-)

|   |   |   |--5-George Alexander Dennison (1910 SaskatchewanCAN - 1959 AlbertaCAN)

invisible writing

1--Hugh Denniston of County Tyrone, Ireland, abt 1784

SourcesTee Branch and Barry Bradfield, who has contributed this research paper
on the Dennistons of County Tyrone, Ireland, and possible relatives.

1-Hugh Denniston (abt 1784 CoTyroneIRE - 1871 WashingtonCoNY)

|--m. say 1808 Ann GALBRAITH in CoTyroneIRE

|--2-Andrew Dennison (abt 1816 CoTyroneIRE - 1881 WashingtonCoNY)

|   |--say 1840 Jane McFARLAND

|   |--3-Thomas Henry Dennison (abt 1844 CoTyroneIRE - 1884 SenecaCoNY)

|   |   |--m. 1867 Mary GALBRAITH, in WashingtonCoNY

|   |   |--4-Thomas Arthur Dennison (1868 IL -)

|   |   |   |--m. 1889 Delia BROUSSEAU, in WebsterMA

|   |   |   |--5-Thomas Arthur Dennison (1890 WorcesterCoMA - 1956 HampdenCoMA)

|   |   |   |   |--m. 1909 Nettie Margaret TRAVIS, in ColumbiaCoNY

|   |   |   |   |--6-William Dennison (1913 WindhamCoVT - 1984 SaratogaCoNY)

|   |   |   |   |   |--m. Rose BAIRD

|   |   |   |   |   |--7-Wayne Dennison

|   |   |   |   |   |   |--8-William Dennison   *** Tee-20 ***
                                                                                    (mutations DYS437-, 570+)

invisible writing

invisible writing

1--Alexander Denniston of County Longford, Ireland, born abt 1663

SourcesBarry Bradfield, whose extensive research on this line is presented in his paper “Ronald Denniston of Longford”. Despite the title, this paper covers also the descendancy of Ronald’s American cousin Wayne Denniston (project member #19), and both Wayne and Ronnie of Ireland have assisted with information on their particular lines of descent.

1-Alexander (abt 1663 - 1723 Drummeel, LongfordIRE)

The mutation DYS446-, shared by Wayne-19 and Barry-25(Ronald), below, links them also with their cousins Barry-13(Robert), and Barry-12(Sidney), who likely descend also from Alexander or his close kin.

|--m1. abt 1685 _?_ LEWIS, dau Samuel LEWIS, merchant of London

|--2-Samuel Denniston (abt 1687 - abt 1747) of Drummeel, LongfordIRE)

|   ---m. _?_

|   |--3-Edward Denniston (abt 1715 - aft 1782) of Drummeel, LongfordIRE

|   |   ---m. _?_

The mutation CDYb+ shared by Wayne-19 and Barry-25(Ronald), below, is consistent with their common descent from Alexander’s great-grandson, Samuel Denniston (c1744-1804), of County Longford.

|   |   |--4-Samuel Denniston (abt 1744 - 1804) of Drummeel, Drumnacross, LongfordIRE

|   |   |   ---m. Rebecca _?_

|   |   |   |--5-Edward Denniston (abt 1770 Longford - aft 1834) of Drumnacross, LongfordIRE

|   |   |   |   ---m. 1804 Ellen _?_

|   |   |   |   |--6-Samuel Denniston (1804 - 1876) of Drumncross, LongfordIRE

|   |   |   |   |   ---m. Fanny SPEIR

|   |   |   |   |   |--7-Edward Denniston (1850 - 1917) of Drumnacross, LongfordIRE

|   |   |   |   |   |    ---m. 1894 (3rd cousin) Margaret Ann DENNISTON, in County Mayo

|   |   |   |   |   |   |--8- Samuel Denniston (1896 -) of Drumnacross, LongfordIRE

|   |   |   |   |   |   |   ---m. 1920 Georgina GREY

|   |   |   |   |   |   |   |--9-Edward Samuel Denniston

|   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |-10- Ronald Samuel Denniston   *** Barry-25 ***
                                                                                    (mutations DYS446-, CDYb+)

|   |   |   |--5-Samuel (“Perpetual Motion”)Denniston (say 1772 LongfordIRE - say 1852 WayneCoMI)

|   |   |   |   ---m. abt 1797 Margaret _?_

|   |   |   |   |--6-Samuel Denniston (abt 1820 GrandIsland (ErieCoNY) - 30Jul1885, Eckford, CalhounCoMI)

|   |   |   |   |   ---m1. 19Oct1845 Elizabeth RAYMO, Nankin, WayneCoMI

|   |   |   |   |   ---m2. 10Nov1847 Rosanna FENTON, Nankin, WayneCoMI

|   |   |   |   |   |--7-Elmer Augustus Denniston (1871 CalhounCoMI - 1945 AlleganCoMI)

|   |   |   |   |   |   ---m. 1896 Estella Adeliah PARKER, in CalhounCoMI

|   |   |   |   |   |   |--8-Asahel Samuel Denniston

|   |   |   |   |   |   |   |--9- Wayne Earl Denniston   *** Wayne-19 ***
                                                                                    (mutations DYS446-, CDYb+, 439++)

|--m2. 1715 Catherine MONTGOMERY

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Navigating from here

The menu buttons at top right take you to other pages on this site, while the nav panel above targets other points on this page, or brings up other resources (papers I’ve written, and the like). If you find yourself lost, the browser BACK button will take you back to where you were (some people also have a convenient BACK button on their mouse, right under their thumb). Or hitting the HOME key of your keyboard will take you back to the top of this page where you are now.

Some Key Terms: haplotype, haplogroup, NPE, patrilineage, RPH.

DENNISON Patrilineage 1 Directory of Researchers

Active researchers of this DENNISON patrilineage are shown below. Those with highlighted names may be e-mailed by clicking on their names, and their posted descendancies may be viewed by clicking on their highlighted Patrilineage Project#s. Satellite members of the project are listed immediately after the principal researcher for the sublineage they are interested in, and their names are preceded by a dash. Where the person tested is not also the principal researcher, the former’s name appears under the latter’s, in parentheses.

Proj#  “Handle”         Researchers      
      (Test Subject)        
Test
Panel
FTDNA
Kit# 
D-05 Alan Alan Denison F67 64558
D-13 Barry(Robert)   Barry Bradfield
(Robert Edward Dennison)
F67 182046
D-25 Barry(Ronald)   Barry Bradfield
(Ronald Samuel Denniston)
F67 179330
D-12 Barry(Sidney)   Barry Bradfield
(Sidney Robert Dennison)
F67 179645
D-12a Elaine —Elaine Baker
D-23 Chris Christopher Allen Dennison
(Gary Allen Dennison)
F37 220222
D-02 Cindy Cindy Denniston
(Steve Denniston)
F37 20617
D-04 John_A John Allen Dennison F67 58472
D-01 Lane Lane Teaff
(H. G. Denison)
F67 17970
D-34 Mary Jane Mary Jane Michael
(Garland Cornell Dennison)
F37 316168
D-32 Patrick Patrick Balfour F111 185262
D-22 Randle T. Randle Dennison F37 216370
D-07 Russell Russell P. Dennison F67 143588
D-06 Scottie Scottie Dennison
(John E. Dennison)
F67 64729
D-29 Sean John Patrick Dennison F67 241226
D-20 Tee Tee Branch
(William Dennison)
F37 212273
D-19 Wayne Wayne Earl Denniston F37 200149

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BIBLIOGRAPHY OF PUBLISHED SOURCES

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BARRY-LONGFORD(Alexander1663)
Barry Bradfield,
“Ronald Denniston of Longford”
(published by the author in PDF format 20Jan2012)

This report, by Irish researcher Barry Bradfield, presents a partial descendancy for Alexander Denniston of Drummeel, County Longford, Ireland, that focuses on the ancestries of DNA-tested DENNISON Patrilineage 1 project members Wayne-19, and Ronald-25. It is based on reasonably exhaustive search of the Irish records, and presents much of the scant Irish evidence, along with some from America as well. Although the report is focused particularly on the ancestry of Irish member Ronald Denniston, it ought to be of interest to any serious researchers of DENNISONs in Ireland.

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BARRY-TYRONE
Barry Bradfield,
“The Early Dennistons of Tyrone”
(published by the author in PDF format 20Mar2011)

This report, by Irish researcher Barry Bradfield, presents extensive evidence on DENNISONs in County Tyrone, Ireland, and it ought to be of interest to any serious researchers of DENNISONs in Ireland.

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RD
T. Randle Dennison and Rachel E. Dennison,
Scotch-Irish Dennisons of Virginia, Kentucky, and Points West
(published by the authors, 2002)

This is a very well researched descendancy of the immigrant, Daniel Denniston, the pioneer settler of AugustaCoVA in the 1730s, and ancestor of project members Alan-05, and Randle-22 (the author himself). It takes into consideration all the principal sources on the early generations in AugustaCo and its derivative, RockinghamCo, and follows the descendants of Daniel as most of them migrated to Kentucky and “points west” in subsequent generations. Some lines are worked out in full, and carried down to the present day.

This work stands out from the mass of published amateur genealogies in at least two respects. First, and most important, the research on the early generations (the ones of the greatest interest to the greatest number of people) has been quite thorough, and partly for that reason, the conclusions are both judicious, and largely sound.

Second, and most unusually for a work of this kind, detailed citations are provided for specific facts adduced. However, these are heavily abbreviated, and it is often far from clear whether the original primary (manuscript) source has been examined, or instead, the evidence has been gleaned from secondary sources of compiled abstracts. While for the most part such compilations are of fairly high quality, since they are, after all, abstracts, errors of both transcription and interpretation can creep in, and few collections of abstracts do an adequate job of describing, or even considering, the actual records context. It’s not always necessary to consult the actual primary sources, but it is always necessary to cite to the exact source one has consulted, so that those who make use of the published work can properly appreciate the thoroughness of the research, and make their own judgements about whether they had better check the primary sources themselves.

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JBR-DENNISON
John Barrett Robb,
The Daniel Dennistons of Beverley Manor and Descendants
(published by the author in PDF format initially in 2008, but subject to ongoing revisions)

This report, commissioned by project member Alan-05, focuses on the early generations of Alan’s descendancy from the same Daniel Denniston whose descendancy is the subject of Randle and Rachel Dennison’s book, RD, above. However, despite the fact that both the matter and the sources for these two studies substantially overlap, the present work is in no way based on the former, but represents a fresh look at the evidence, often at the primary records level, and includes detailed citations and analytical argument not found in the previous work, as well as a more detailed bibliography. The two works are linked in just one respect: after working out his own conclusions, the author carefully examined the corresponding parts of RD, and where supplemental material of interest was found, included this in quoted form, usually without comment, in his own work. Virtually all of this supplemental quoted material from RD concerns the grandchildren of Daniel the immigrant after they had migrated to Kentucky.

The scope of JBR-DENNISON was largely confined to greater AugustaCoVA from the period of settlement in the 1730s until about 1800, though the one DENNISON family that remained in Augusta, that of John Dennison of Naked Creek, grandson of Daniel the immigrant, is followed down to about 1830.

However, in addition, an effort was made to locate and account for all occurences of the surname DENNISON in the records of Augusta and it’s immediately derivative counties, and this expansion of scope has provided the basis for a reconstruction of the family of the John Dennison, a younger contemporary of Daniel, and like him an early settler of AugustaCo. The author believes this John to be the ancestor of project memebers Lane-01, her cousin Russell-07, and John_A-04, and of most of the DENNISONs who trace back to the early settlers of that name in the Virginia panhandle counties of Washington, Wythe, and their successors. Furthermore, the DNA evidence clearly links these two early Augusta pioneers, Daniel and John, and shows that though neither descends from the other, the two must have been quite closely related.

Analysis of Patrilineage 1 DNA

Before getting into this analysis, I would suggest that you open the haplotype chart in a new window, so that you may better follow along with the references made below to the specific colored mutations in the chart.

Both the DNA probability calculations and the genealogy for DENNISON Patrilineage 1 point to a MRCA (Most Recent Common Ancestor) who was born say 1620, for at least all but one of the tested members. The remaining member, Cindy-02, may well descend from an ancestor further upstream, considering the large number of mutations in her surrogate’s haplotype. In choosing the haplotype of Barry-12 as the RPH for this patrilineage, I therefore excluded both Cindy-02, and Russell-07 from consideration—Russell because he is a known close cousin of Lane-01, so his haplotype already has representation in the group.

At least 22 independent mutations have occurred to the MRCA’s original haplotype across the considered descendant lines (even the RPH has a mutation), three of which are candidates to be shared upstream mutations—the only kind of mutation that can help us sort members of the same patrilineage into distinct family branches. The markers that are candidates to be shared upstream mutations are DYS439=14, DYS576=17, and DYS446=12—the latter in the extended set of markers numbered 38-67 for which 7 of the 9 have been tested.

There is always some chance that a mutation that appears to be shared (inherited by two or more tested descendants from a common ancestor) in fact occurred separately and independently in each of the family branches. While the chances of this are quite small, they are not neglible, especially for the most highly mutable markers—the two CDYs, and to a lesser extent DYS576. DYS576 is one of the three markers being considered here, and there is reason to believe that it did in fact mutate independently in different branches, as I shall argue below.

The DYS439=14 Mutation

The other two shared mutation candidates, DYS439 and DYS446, have, respectively, about a half and about a quarter of the mutation rate of DYS576. Even for the more mutatable of these, DYS439, the chances that it mutated independently in the lines of descent of Alan-05, Lane-01, and John_A-04 are less than 1%, as are the chances that DYS446 mutated independently for Barry-12 and Barry-13. We may therefore conclude beyond reasonable doubt that the DYS439=14 mutation occurred upstream of the earliest known ancestors of Alan, Lane, John_A (and of course, Lane’s cousin Russell-07), and that the DYS446=12 mutation occurred upstream of 12- and Barry-13 in their common ancestral line. And because these two sets of haplotypes do not share the other’s inherited mutation, neither can have descended from the other: they must therefore have different MRCAs.

The earliest known ancestor of Alan-05 is Daniel Denniston (born say 1688 in Ireland; emigrated to AugustaCoVA say 1735), and there is pretty solid genealogical evidence that Lane-01 is not descended from Daniel1, the AugustaCoVA immigrant, but rather from a John Denniston who immigrated to AugustaCo a couple of decades later. This John1 was not a son of Daniel1 and almost certainly not a brother, but he may have been a nephew, or was otherwise probably a close cousin.

There is some very suggestive evidence that Daniel1 lived in the vicinity of Dublin about 1720 and emigrated to America from there, and he may therefore have been a son of one George Denniston (1658-1717), who owned a large estate in County Leitrim, but was also a merchant of Dublin; project member Barry himself is thought to be a descendant of George through the latter’s son William. If the Daniel1 who came to Augusta was also a son of George, and if the John1 who followed him to Augusta was Daniel1’s nephew, then George himself must have carried the mutation DYS439=14, as well as all of his descendants, including any male Dennistons of Barry’s line. Or if John1 were instead a first cousin of Daniel, descended from one of George’s brothers, the mutation would be pushed back one more generation, to George’s father, the Rev. Archibald, born say 1620, and would be found in all of Archibald’s descendants. If any known male descendants surnamed DENNISON of these Irish lines could be tested, we should be able to get a better idea of when this DYS439 mutation occurred.

Meanwhile, Scottie-06’s ancestral line most likely traces back to AugustaCoVA too, but several generations after Daniel1. Thus, like the putative descendants of Daniel1’s immigrant cousin, John1, she too probably descends from a close cousin in this branch of the family. And if this is so, given that Scottie lacks the DYS439=14 mutation, it is highly unlikely that the mutation goes back more than a generation or three before Daniel1.

The DYS576=17 Mutation

Now that we have the test results for new member, Randle-22, whom we know from his excellent published genealogy (RD) is a fifth cousin once removed of Alan-05, and like him a son of Daniel2 (the only son of Daniel1, the AugustaCoVA pioneer), we can also make a couple of inferences about the mutation they share, DYS576=17, but which their DYS439=14 cousins, Lane-01, Russell-07, and John_A-04, lack.

First, we have to consider the possibility that this DYS576 mutation that Alan and Randle have in common didn’t occur independently in their separate lines. If Daniel2 inherited the mutation from his father, Daniel1, the probability that he would have passed it on to both of his sons, Alan’s ancestor William3, and Randle’s, Thomas3, is 98%, but in this case, since both Alan and Randle ended up with the mutation, if Daniel2 inherited it, almost certainly it was passed on to these two descendants with no further mutation. Now, if, on the other hand, Daniel2 did not inherit it, given the fact that both Alan and Randle possessed it, the identical mutation must have occurred independently in each of their lines. The probability that DYS576 will mutate in any given generation is .01022, according to the best present estimates, but since it can mutate in two ways (up or down—for simplicity we are ignoring the low probability of a multistep mutation), the probability that it would mutate down (losing one ySTR repeat) is just .00511. Given that there are 6 generations from Alan back to Daniel2, and 7 for Randle back to Daniel2, the probabilities that DYS576 would mutate to 17 independently in their ancestral lines, are .03 (3%), and .035 (3.5%), respectively (e.g. 1 - (1 - .00511)^6 for Alan). Thus, the probality that both would have experienced this particular mutation in 6 and 7 generations respectively is .03 x .035 = .00105 (.1% or 1 in 1000). We may therefore conclude beyond reasonable doubt that Alan and Randle inherited this mutation from Daniel2, who inherited it from his father.

This is not to say that the mutation actually occurred during the genetic transmission from Daniel1 to Daniel2, though it may well have. If not, though, it probably occurred no more than a generation of two upstream of Daniel1. I have argued above that the DYS439 mutation occurred no more than 2 to 3 generations upstream from Daniel. And since DYS439 is shared by Alan and Randle, and also by Lane, Russell, and John_A, but the latter lack the DYS576 mutation, DYS439 must have occurred at least one generation upstream of 576. Therefore the DYS576 mutation most probably occurred in the transmission from Daniel1 to Daniel2, or in the transmission from Daniel1's father (George?) to Daniel1, or just possibly one generation farther back. For convenience, if a bit arbitrarily, I have slotted the DYS576 mutation on the mutation history tree in its latest possible position: between the two Daniels.

DYS439 + DYS576 = The Daniel1 DENNISON Line

It was rather surprising to learn that Randle too had the DYS576 mutation. With 6 generations from Daniel2 to Alan, it figured that this highly mutable marker would have mutated somewhere downstream of Daniel2, not upstream. The fact that it didn’t allows us to identify DYS576=17 with Daniel2 and therefore with (at least) Daniel1, though not uniquely, because both Scottie-06 and Barry-13 also have the mutation. What identifies the Daniel1 descendancy uniquely is the combination of DYS576 and DYS439.

The DYS446=12 Mutation, and it’s Subordinate CDYb=38

Meanwhile, the ancestry of Barry(Robert)-13 and Barry(Sidney)-12 has been traced back with confidence only to about 1790. The mutation that they both inherited (DYS446=12) may thus have occurred at any time before about 1760—whenever the mutual MRCA was born who received this mutation in the transmission from his father. Since these two both lack the DYS439=14 mutation, however, they must have split off the tree before George, Archibald, or whomever was the MRCA of Alan, Lane, and the others.

One thing we can say pretty much for sure, though, is that cousins Wayne-19 and Barry(Ronald)-25 descend from the same branch of the family as project members Barry(Robert) and Barry(Sidney), since Wayne and Barry(Ronald) both inherited DYS446=12, and CDYb=38. The genealogy of these two shows that they both descend from 4-Samuel Denniston (born abt 1744), a grandson of 1-Alexander Dennison (born abt 1663) of Drummeel, LongfordIRE. Thus, since Barry(Robert) and Barry(Sidney) have DYS446=12, but not CDYb=38, they probably descend from Alexander as well, or one of his close male DENNISON kin.

Because the CDYs are so mutable, there is a small (13%) chance that the CDYb=38 mutation occurred independently in the lines of Wayne and Barry(Ronald), thus providing no support for their common genealogy back to 4-Samuel; even in this case, though, they would still be grouped with great confidence with their cousins Barry(Robert) and Barry(Sidney), and (considering the genealogy for Wayne and Barry(Ronald), the four of them would still almost certainly belong to 1-Alexander’s line.

The Other Instances of the DYS576=17 Mutation

Now I return to the third candidate for a shared upstream mutation: DYS576, which occurs, not only in the haplotypes of Alan and Randle, as discussed above, but also in those of Barry-13, and Scottie-06. At this point, a look at the mutation history tree I have worked out would be appropriate. I have indicated there that Barry-13’s DYS576 mutation occurred independently of the identical mutation inherited by Alan and Randle because in each instance of this mutation, we are able to infer that an additional distinctive mutation must have occurred upstream of 576 not shared by the other group: in the case of the Daniel1 descendants, DYS439=14 (not shared by the two Barry haplotypes), and in the case of Barry-13, DYS446 (not shared by the Daniel1 descendants).

What, though, of Scottie-06, who also has the DYS576 mutation? Given that her ancestry can be traced back to 1829, to a Virginia county not far from Augusta, where Daniel1 and John1 first settled several generations before, and besides this, a family history and traditions associated with AugustaCo—all this suggests a close affinity to the same family branch that furnished the original AugustaCo settlers, Daniel1 and John1. Nonetheless, as I have argued above, the DYS439 mutation shared by all the other SW Virginian descendants must have occurred higher upstream than the DYS576 mutation shared by Alan and Randle, and Scottie lacks the 439 mutation: her 576 mutation must therefore have occurred independently of the one shared by Alan and Randle—unless Scottie too inherited the DYS439 mutation, but it mutated back to its original state in her line.

If Scottie diverged from these other groups only since Daniel2 (the MRCA of Alan and Randle), there would be 6 generations in which this back mutation might have occurred, or if she diverged as far back as possible, with, say, Daniel1’s DENNISON grandfather being the MRCA, there would by 9 generations for a back mutation: in the first instance, the probability of a back mutation would be 1.4%, and in the second it would be 2.1%. Most people would say that it is beyond reasonable doubt that Scottie’s line never experienced the DYS439 mutation, that her DYS576 mutation occurred independently of that of Alan and Randle (probably in some more recent generation), and that her MRCA with them goes back at least to Ireland.

The odds are heavy, therefore, that all three of the DYS576=17 mutations occurred independently in the lines of Alan and Randle, Scottie, and Barry-13.

Scottie’s Misleading TMRCA Estimate

Although the extension of Scottie’s results to 67 markers appears to reduce the TMRCA estimate between her and Alan to just 136 years, suggesting a most recent common ancestor born about (1950 -136 = 1814), or about 4 generations, this is misleading in a couple of respects. First, we know from exhaustive genealogical research that the immigrant Daniel1 had only one son, Daniel2, and that only one of his sons, John3, remained behind in AugustaCo long enough to be an ancestor of Scottie. Thus, we know that Alan and Scottie have no common ancestor for at least 6 generations. The TMRCA charts I create, unlike FTDNA’s TIP calculator, are not able to factor in genealogical knowledge. This alone, pushes the TMRCA estimate back another 100 years or so. Second, there is 50% chance that the TMRCA estimates in my charts are too close to the present, and still a high probability that the MRCA might be 100, or even 200 years farther back into the past.

If I were to recalculate the 67-marker TMRCA chart so that there was only a 20% chance of an underestimate, the TMRCA would come out to 210 years (1740), and adjusting for the known genealogy would push this estimate further back, well into the 1600s. The FTDNA TIP calculator, after adjusting for the known genealogy, estimates that there’s only a 35% chance that Scottie is descended from Daniel2 the son of Daniel the immigrant, and to get to the 80% confidence level, one has to go back another three generations, to a common ancestor born about 1620. This latter estimate fits much better with what can be inferred from the pattern of mutations I have analyzed above.

The CDYa- Mutation

Now that the haplotype of Cindy-02, the project outlier, has been extended to 67 markers, and found to match perfectly on markers 38-67 to the haplotypes of her genealogically indicated cousin, Lane-01, and meanwhile the original (RPH) value for Marker CDYa=36 has become surer, I am much more disposed to consider Cindy’s extraordinarily high number of mutations with respect to Lane to be anomalous, and to interpret the CDYa=35 value these two share, and share also with their genealogically probable cousin, John_A-04, as an upstream marker, inherited from a common ancestor.

The logical candidate for that ancestor would be the John1 Denniston, who first appears in AugustaCoVA in 1756, when he was excused from the militia duty that all but older men were required to perform. There is a good deal of speculation built into this hypothesis, and including Cindy in this group is still something of a stretch. As for descendancy from this John1, there is at least some decent circumstantial evidence that the several DENNISON families who settled permanently in the Virginia panhandle counties were the sons of John1. There is a good deal more research to be done on all of these putative descendants of the immigrant John1 Denniston of AugustaCo, not in Augusta or it’s immediately derivative counties (Rockbridge, Rockingham, and Botetourt), but in the Virginia panhandle counties that derived from these, and in northeastern Tennessee.

There is yet another complication in this regard with respect to the interpretation of Cindy’s haplotype. While her CDYa=35 matches the value for Lane and John_A, and I have therefore brought her into the same descendancy, there remains the problem of her CDYb=35 value, which is 2 GD off from the RPH. There are three ways to explain this: (1) she experienced two separate mutations to CDYb; (2) she experienced a single two-step mutation to CDYb; or (3) CDYb was made identical to the already mutated CDYa=35 value by a reclOH event. I have guessed that it was (3) that accounts for her CDYb value, but it could just as easily have been either (1) or (2). If (1) were the explanation, still another mutation (and another GD point) would have to be added to the total separating her from all the other DENNISONs, and it is partly for that reason that I have shied away from that explanation, but the main reason that I have adopted (3) is that, based on our current knowledge (in which reclOH events may account for as many as 1 in 10-15 of all mutations), it represents the lowest probability of the 3 choices.

How Further Testing Might Help

Further testing beyond 67 to markers to FTDNA’s new maximum of 111, may identify additional shared upstream markers, but as with the extension to 67, the value of such testing is going to be in linear proportion to the number of haplotypes so extended—starting with the minimum number of two (a single extended haplotype would have no one to compare to). Maybe extending two could be considered if FTDNA has a sale on the extension of 67 markers to 111 (the standard price is $129). The first two haplotypes I would choose would be Barry-12 and Alan-05.

DENNISON Patrilineage 1 Project NEWS

17Jul2011

Project member Alan-05 has agreed to be available as backup project administrator in case something happens to me, and he may also be involved with special project that may arise. However, all business of the project will continue to flow through me unless you are otherwise advised.

The DNA results for new DENNISON Patrilineage 1 project member Wayne Earl Dennison (Wayne-19) have been posted, and his genealogy, which goes back to Grand Island, Erie Co NY, and thence (probably) to County Longford, Ireland, will be posted in due course.

The DNA results for Scottie-06 are being extended to 67 markers. Scottie’s extension is thanks to Alan-05, who has made a donation to the General Fund for that purpose. If you are interested in helping to further the DNA side of the project by making a donation yourself, please read what I have posted on the General Fund, here.

A couple of NPE matches have turned up to the haplotypes of patrilineage members Scottie-06, and Wayne-19. We may say that they are NPEs because they have different surnames than DENNISON (Balfour and Stone), and because there is now, courtesy of project member Barry, pretty good evidence that the Dennison-Denniston surname that runs in this bloodline goes back to the original gentry line of Scotland. Both of these NPEs have 67-marker results to compare to, so that when Scottie’s extension to 67 become available, we should have confirmation that they belong to the patrilineage, and I will contact them and offer them membership at that point.

10Sep2011

The DNA test results of extending Scottie-06, and Barry-13(Robert) from 37 to 67 markers have come in, and I have updated all the charts, and provided a new Patrilineage 1 Analysis, above. I have also added a few earliest known ancestral names to the Mutation History Tree.

The ancestral pedigree (descendancy) for Wayne-19 has been posted.

2Nov2011

Please welcome new member Tee Branch (Tee-20) to the project. Her DENNISON ancestor appears to have emigrated to the U.S. from County Tyrone, Ireland, after 1850, settling in upstate New York.

Please welcome new member Randle Dennison (Randle-22) to the project. Randle is the author of RD, a valuable book that follows the descendants of Daniel1 Denniston of Beverley Manor to Kentucky and “points west”. His DNA test results have proved to be identical to those of Alan-05, his fifth cousin once removed, and establish the paired mutations of DYS439=14 and DYS576-17 as markers for the descendancy of Daniel1.

26Feb2012

Please welcome new member Chris Dennison (Chris-23) to the project. Chris’s genealogy seems to show that he is a descendant of Daniel1 Denniston of Beverley Manor, through great-grandson Wiley4 (David3), but his DNA results essentially rule out a descendancy from Daniel1.

Cindy-02’s haplotype has been extended to 67-markers and the results go some way toward bringing her back into the fold of SW Virginian DENNISONs, despite its still inordinate number of mutations, and the fact that it lacks the DYS439=13 mutation that is characteristic of this line. In particular the new results tighten her Genetic Distance relationship to John_A-04, who does have the DYS439=13 mutation, bringing John_A and Cindy solidly into the circle of probable relations.

Consequently, I have significantly revised the mutation history tree to show Lane-01, her cousin Russell-07, John_A-04, and even Cindy-02, as descendants of a common ancestor—a contemporary of the Daniel1 Denniston of AugustaCo who is the ancestor of Alan-05, Randle-22, but probably not Scottie-06.

30May2012

Please welcome new member Ronald Denniston (a.k.a. Barry-25) to the project. Project member Barry Bradfield, who sponsored Ronald’s test, has traced Ronald’s line back to 1-Alexander (born abt 1663) of Drummeel, County Longford.

The DENNISON Patrilineage 1 Haplogroup: R-Z307* (Z304-)

A man’s yDNA may be classified according to a deeper, broader, ancestral tree schema by testing ySNPs instead of ySTR markers. These ySNPs are unique point mutations to the yChromosome that occur so much less frequently than ySTR mutations that they are of no use in sorting people into patrilineages, but by the same token they are ideal for sorting patrilineages into the various haplogroups and subclades of the broad human population. And by correlating the haplogroup subclades of both modern descendants and of their ancient ancestors (by testing their remains) with geographic population flows, and with archaeological evidence signifying cultural groupings, the whole broad history of homo sapiens is gradually being reconstructed. Each SNP mutation represents a further branching of the human tree, defining a new subclade.

DENNISON Patrilineage 1 falls in the broad classification of Haplogroup R1b, and within that into one of its two main subdivisions, defined by the mutation U106. This branch of the human population tree is therefore referred to as “R-U106+”, where “R” stands for Haplogroup R, and the “U106” for the most recent known SNP mutation in a particular descendancy. The “+” at the end means that additional SNPs have been found to have occurred downstream of U106 in the genomes of some members of the R-U106 subclade, and that these SNPs haven’t yet been tested for. Or, if all the next level SNPs had been tested for a particualar individual and found to be negative (i.e. that no further known mutations had occurred subsequent to U106), the haplogroup subclade for that individual would be termed “R-U106*”.

The U106 mutation itself is estimated to have occurred about 4200 years ago.

R1b, the broader subclade into which R-U106 falls, is the most prevalent haplogroup in northwest Europe, and in all its varieties it is shared by about 65% of all those with patrilineal British ancestry. R-U106 follows the main line of R1b, but it has a bit more of a Continental background than its main alternative line, R-L21, which is especially prevalent amongst the Celtic population of Ireland and Scotland.

R-U106 accounts for about 21.4% of all English haplogroups (though only 5.9% of Irish—there are no statistics for Scotland), but it is even more prevalent in the Netherlands (37.2%), Germany (20.5%), and Denmark (17.7%)— or in a word: Frisia. These are precisely the areas of Europe from which the Anglo-Saxon tribes staged in their takeover of England. Consequently, while Britain is today predominantly Celtic in its DNA (at least on the male side), the DENNISON Pat1 DNA probably represents a different, more Germanic strain.

However, this sort of talk is in reality a bit anachronistic because when U106 was differentiated about 2000 BCE, these cultural differences were still inchoate. You can glean a few more details about R-U106 from this Wiki article, which instead of talking Celts and Germans, contains a reference to the Bell Beaker culture.

The Latest Haplogroup Developments for Patrilineage 1: R-Z307* (Z304-)

Project member Alan (D-05) ordered FTDNA’s Big Y test on behalf of the patrilineage, and the results he has obtained, according to the most recent (as of 15Oct2014) analysis, indicate that DENNISON Patrilineage 1 may fall into a relatively small sub-clade of the human population haplotree. Big Y samples all or many of the ySNPs, and as more people undergo this test, and comparative analysis is undertaken on the results, we can expect an acceleration of the working out of the haplotree.

The DENNISON Patrilineage 1 haplogroup is now known to be positive for the following mutations within Haplogroup R1B (in order of descendancy): U106, Z381, Z156, and both Z306 and Z307 (so far all those who are positive for 306 are also positive for 307), and negative for Z304.

So far, many people have turned up Z306 postive, but of these only Alan is also Z304 negative. The latest version of the ISOGG Haplotree for Haplogroup R shows the ySNPs Z306 and Z304 to be on the same level (in the old nomenclature, R1b1a2a1a1c1a), but thanks to Alan’s result, which are so far unique, this section of the tree will now have to be revised to place Z304 on a subordinate level, and to make room for a category of hapolotypes that doesn’s follow the Z304 pathway.

The FTDNA haplotree guesses that Z307 is subordinate to (occurred after) Z307, so I’ve used Z307 as the designation for DENNISON Patrilineage 1. FTDNA reports SNPs p89, M93, L1, and L128 as subordinate to Z307, and suggests that L128 be tested next. The ISOGG tree puts SNPs DF96 and DF98 subordinate to Z306/307, but FTDNA doesn’t offer tests for those SNPs.

The possible genealogical relevance of this interesting result, and its utility for classifying people into DENNISON Patrilineage 1, are indeterminate at this point. If an estimate could be made of when the Z306 mutation occurred, and when the Z304 mutation (which so far all the others with Z306 positive share), we would be able to say that DENNISON Patrilineage 1 split off from this branch of the haplotree between those times. Chances are that this occurred during the period before surnames became general, but given that Patrilineage 1 has such ancient roots, it’s just possible that the Z304 mutation happened this side of the Norman Conquest, and thus within historical time, at least, if not family historical time. However, given that at least two subclade levels below Z304 have been identified (probably involving multiple surnames) this would seem to be quite unlikely.

Nonetheless, if one were to test a male surnamed DENNISON on Z306 and Z304, and find that he was postive for the first and negative for the second, that by itself would make it overwhelmingly likely that he belonged to DENNISON Patrilineage 1. However, since we are way beyond mere patrilineage classification now, and well into sorting Patrilineage 1 descendants into sub-branches of the family, there would be little utility in skipping the basic 37-marker ySTR test, unless the only goal of testing was to rule out the possibility that an untested genealogically indicated cousin of a DENNISON Patrilineage 1 member had experienced an NPE (Non-Paternity Event) somewhere up his ancestral tree.

At the rate progress is being made in this field, before too many more years have passed, some of these subclades will be brought down into genealogical time, and may even become a shortcut means of identifying patrilineages. In the meantime, you can read more about haplogroups and their distribution across the continents at this site.


DENNISON Patrilineage 1 ySTR DNA Haplotypes Compared

The following matrices, one for 37-marker comparisons, and one for 67-marker comparisons provide some idea of the closeness of relationship between each pair of test subjects of this patrilineage. The cell at the intersection of each column/row pair shows the GD (Genetic Distance) between the pair—basically, the total number of mutations that has occurred in both of their lines of descent since their MRCA (Most Recent Common Ancestor) walked the earth.

37- and 67-Marker Haplotype Genetic Distance Comparison Matrices
(the lowest numbers represent the closest relationships)

Genetic Distances, DENNISON Patrilineage 1 37-marker yDNA Matrices Genetic Distances, DENNISON Patrilineage 1 67-marker yDNA Matrices

The number in each cell is the number of divergent mutations between each pair of haplotypes.

The lowest numbers represent the closest relationships.

The color-coded categories don’t take account either of the common surname that the pair may share,
or of the possible convergence of their genealogical evidence at a particular time and place.

Whether an outlier haplotype belongs to the same patrilineage should be judged by its lowest GD number.

-

It’s also possible to create corresponding matrices that show TMRCA (Time back to the MRCA, expressed either in generations or in years), but I have decided to forgo such charts because they are just too misleading as indicators of when a particular MRCA lived. Mutations are so sporadic and infrequent (even when a large number of markers is tested) that such estimates, expressed in years, can easily be off by 100-200 years either way. If one has the urge to play around with TMRCA estimates between one’s own haplotype and those of one’s closest matches, the best way to do that is to run the built-in FTDNA TIP calculator from one’s personal page—and be sure to input the number of generations for which one knows, genealogically, that you and your match cannot have had a common ancestor.

While the GD, at least, is exact, there is no obvious way to tell how the mutations divide between the two subjects, because the haplotype of their common ancestor, from whom they have mutated, is unknown. However, I have developed a procedure using the GD chart for inferring the haplotype of the common ancestor, which I call the Root Prototype Haplotype (RPH), and I use this as a basis for marking mutations in the yDNA Haplotypes chart, elsewhere on this page.

FTDNA provides advisories for classifying GDs between haplotype pairs for their degree of closeness, or to put it otherwise, for the probability that the two have a common male ancestor within genealogical time, and thus belong to the same (genealogical) patrilineage. Unfortunately, neither FTDNA’s 37-marker GD advisory, nor its 67-marker GD advisory can be relied on for an adequate elucidation of this subject. Although the latter does note the relevance of genealogical evidence, which is an improvement over the confused and misleading text of the 37-marker advisory, it too fails to note the crucial importance of two haplotypes sharing a common surname, and the too stringent Relatedness categories of the 37-marker advisory have been relaxed but only at the expense of inconsistent scaling by the respective average mutation rate of the panels.

Another important principle not made clear by the FTDNA text (although there are signs of trying) is that the relationship of an outlier to the the group is to be judged by the number and closeness of his nearest approach to it, i.e. by his lowest GD numbers, not his highest or average GD.

Finally, although the infrequent and sporadic nature of the mutation process means that any particular pairwise GD might be off by 1 or 2 either way, the overall structure of the matrix for a largish patrilineage does provide a rough guide to the depth of the lineage as a whole, and and to its subdivision into clusters—especially where the haplotypes have been extended to 67 or 111 markers.


DENNISON Patrilineage 1 Mutation History Tree

The following tree chart shows the accumulated mutations for each tested descendant of the MRCA (Most Recent Common Ancestor) of this DENNISON Patrilineage. The MRCA appears at the top left of the tree, and the tested members of the project at the bottom, identified by their DENNISON Surname Project#, and the “handle” of the principal researcher for each tested member’s line. The other numbers in the chart represent mutations that have occurred, and accumulated, in certain lineages. The member listed at the bottom of the first column (Barry-12, representing Sidney Robert Dennison) has been selected as the project RPH, even though his haplotype probably has at least one mutation from the MRCA (DYS446=12).

The mutations are represented by the numeric IDs of the ySTR markers with the “DYS” prefixes truncated to save space. The truncated marker number is followed by a “+” or a “-” to indicate whether the mutation was due to the gain or loss of a repeat. Where a marker differs from the RPH by more than one repeat, those judged to be multistep mutations will be indicated by two or more “+”s or “-”s, while if the difference is thought to be due to multiple independent mutations, these will be listed on successive lines.

The GD (Genetic Distance) between any two members of the patrilineage is roughly equivalent to the number of mutations encountered when tracing a path from their “handle” at the bottom of the tree to that of another member. For the FTDNA 37-marker panel, each unit of GD between two members pushes their common ancestor back about 190 years, on the average. But this is only a very rough estimate, and each unit of GD could easily be off by a generation or three either way.

Furthermore, where two members are known not to have a common ancestor a certain number of generations back, this pushes their most recent common ancestor back at least that many generations plus at least a couple more. Thus, Barry-12 and Barry-13, who are known not to have a common ancestor for at least 5 generations back, have only a 32% probability that their common ancestor is 6 generations back (that their earliest known ancestors are brothers), even though this might be what the genealogical evidence suggests. The adjustment for the number of generations for which it is known that there is no common ancestor should be made when running FTDNA’s Tip calculator.

In my latest revision to this tree, I have departed from my usual practice of ignoring the possibility that the highly mutable CDY mutations occurred early in the descent tree, and were thus inherited by more than one descendant, instead of occurring independently in multiple lines. Influenced by the genealogy, I have guessed that the mutation CDYa- found for 01-Lane, 04-John_A, and even 02-Cindy, was inherited from a common ancestor, specifically either the patriarch I’ve called John1(s1705), or from a near ancestor of his. This is highly speculative, and may be wrong, but in hypothesis making, “nothing ventured, nothing gained”.  The Analysis of Patrilineage 1 DNA section outlines the detailed rationale behind my reconstruction of this tree.

Dennison Patrilineage 1 Mutation History Tree

* Cindy-02’s apparent double mutation to CDYb is probably due to a kind of mutation called a reclOH event affecting Palindrome P1(see also this article); or it may be a less common multistep mutation. Either way, I have counted it as a single mutation in calculating GD, but given the mutability of the CDY markers, it may well represent two separate mutations.


DENNISON Patrilineage 1 yDNA Haplotypes

The chart below shows the haplotypes for each tested project member of this patrilineage. I’ve decapitated most of the marker names (truncating “DYS393” to just “393”) to improve readability. The colored markers mutate slower or faster than the norm. Thus, [DYS]439 is fast, [DYS]458 is faster, and CDYa&b are blazing, while [DYS]393 is slow. Shared mutations to slow markers are the most valuable as they are almost sure to have been inherited from a common ancestor, whereas shared mutations to fast markers may have occurred independently in two or more ancestral lines.

Haplotype Identifiers FTDNA 37-Marker Panel FTDNA Markers 38-67 FTDNA Markers 68-111 Haplotype Identifiers

Proj
#
 Principal
 Genealogist
Earliest Known Patrilineal Ancestor
(DENNISON surname omitted)

(Birth - Death)
c=circa   s=say
3
9
3
3
9
0
1
9
/
3
9
4
3
9
1
3
8
5
a
3
8
5
b
4
2
6
3
8
8
4
3
9
3
8
9
I
3
9
2
3
8
9
I
I
4
5
8
4
5
9
a
4
5
9
b
4
5
5
4
5
4
4
4
7
4
3
7
4
4
8
4
4
9
4
6
4
a
4
6
4
b
4
6
4
c
4
6
4
d
4
6
0
Y
G
-
H
4
Y
C
A
I
I
a
Y
C
A
I
I
b
4
5
6
6
0
7
5
7
6
5
7
0
C
D
Y
a
C
D
Y
b
4
4
2
4
3
8
5
3
1
5
7
8
3
9
5
S
1
a
3
9
5
S
1
b
5
9
0
5
3
7
6
4
1
4
7
2
4
0
6
S
1
5
1
1
4
2
5
4
1
3
a
4
1
3
b
5
5
7
5
9
4
4
3
6
4
9
0
5
3
4
4
5
0
4
4
4
4
8
1
5
2
0
4
4
6
6
1
7
5
6
8
4
8
7
5
7
2
6
4
0
4
9
2
5
6
5
7
1
0
4
8
5
6
3
2
4
9
5
5
4
0
7
1
4
7
1
6
7
1
7
5
0
5
5
5
6
5
4
9
5
8
9
5
2
2
4
9
4
5
3
3
6
3
6
5
7
5
6
3
8
4
6
2
4
5
2
4
4
5
Y
G
-
A
1
0
4
6
3
4
4
1
Y
G
-
1
B
0
7
5
2
5
7
1
2
5
9
3
6
5
0
5
3
2
7
1
5
5
0
4
5
1
3
5
6
1
5
5
2
7
2
6
6
3
5
5
8
7
6
4
3
4
9
7
5
1
0
4
3
4
4
6
1
4
3
5

Proj
#
 Principal
 Genealogist
D-19  Wayne Denniston Alexander (c1663 - coLongfordIRE) 13 24 14 11 11 14 12 12 15 13 13 29 17 9 10 11 11 25 15 19 29 15 15 16 16 11 10 19 23 16 15 18 17 36 38 12 12 22 12 D-19  Wayne Denniston
D-25  Barry (Ronald Den.) Alexander (c1663 - coLongfordIRE) 13 24 14 11 11 14 12 12 13 13 13 29 17 9 10 11 11 25 15 19 29 15 15 16 16 11 10 19 23 16 15 18 17 36 38 12 12 11 9 15 16 8 10 10 8 10 10 12 23 23 16 10 12 12 15 8 12 22 20 12 12 11 15 11 11 13 12 37 15 9 17 12 25 26 19 12 12 14 10 10 9 13 12 10 11 11 29 12 14 24 13 10 10 19 15 19 13 23 18 12 15 24 12 23 18 10 14 17 9 12 11 D-25  Barry (Ronald Den.)
D-13  Barry (Robert Den.) John (1758 IRE-1842 NB,CAN) 13 24 14 11 11 14 12 12 13 13 13 29 18 9 10 11 11 25 15 19 29 15 15 16 16 11 10 19 23 16 15 17 17 36 37 12 12 11 9 15 16 8 10 10 8 10 10 12 23 23 16 10 12 12 15 8 12 21 20 12 12 11 15 11 11 13 12 D-13  Barry (Robert Den.)
D-29  Sean Dennison ---pedigree not provided--- 13 24 14 11 11 14 12 12 14 13 13 29 17 9 10 11 11 25 15 19 29 15 15 16 16 11 10 19 23 16 15 18 17 36 37 12 12 11 9 15 16 8 10 10 8 10 10 12 23 23 16 10 12 12 15 8 12 22 20 12 12 11 15 11 11 13 12 35 15 9 17 12 25 26 19 12 12 14 10 10 9 13 12 10 11 11 29 12 14 24 13 10 10 19 15 19 13 23 18 12 15 24 12 23 18 10 14 17 9 12 11 D-29  Sean Dennison
D-12  Barry (Sidney Den.) James (c1801 CorkIRE - 1869 OntarioCAN) 13 24 14 11 11 14 12 12 13 13 13 29 17 9 10 11 11 25 15 19 29 15 15 16 16 11 10 19 23 16 15 18 17 36 37 12 12 11 9 15 16 8 10 10 8 10 10 12 23 23 16 10 12 12 15 8 12 22 20 12 12 11 15 11 11 13 12 35 15 9 17 12 25 26 19 12 12 14 10 10 9 13 12 10 11 11 29 12 14 24 13 10 10 19 15 19 13 23 17 12 15 24 12 23 18 10 14 17 9 12 11 D-12  Barry (Sidney Den.)
D-32  Patrick Balfour ---pedigree not provided--- 13 24 14 11 11 14 12 12 14 13 14 29 17 9 10 11 11 25 15 19 29 15 15 16 16 11 10 19 23 16 15 18 17 35 37 12 12 11 9 15 16 8 10 10 8 10 10 12 23 23 16 10 12 12 15 8 12 22 20 13 12 11 15 11 11 13 12 35 15 9 17 12 26 26 19 12 12 14 10 10 9 12 12 10 11 11 29 12 13 25 13 10 10 19 15 19 13 23 17 12 16 24 12 23 18 10 14 17 9 12 11 D-32  Patrick BALFOUR
D-23  Chris Dennison John (c1830 OH - 1932) 13 24 14 11 11 14 12 12 12 13 13 29 17 9 10 11 11 25 15 19 29 15 15 16 16 11 10 19 23 16 15 18 17 36 37 12 12 11 9 15 16 8 10 10 8 10 10 12 23 23 16 10 12 12 15 8 12 22 20 13 12 11 15 11 11 13 12 35 15 9 17 12 25 26 19 12 12 13 10 10 9 14 12 10 11 11 29 12 14 24 13 10 10 19 15 19 13 23 18 12 15 24 12 23 18 10 14 17 9 12 11 D-23  Chris Dennison
D-06  Scottie Dennison James A (c1829 VA - 1859 VA 13 24 14 11 11 14 12 12 13 13 13 29 17 9 10 11 11 25 15 19 29 15 15 16 16 11 10 19 23 16 15 17 17 36 37 12 12 11 9 15 16 8 10 10 8 10 10 12 23 23 16 10 12 12 15 8 12 22 20 13 12 11 15 11 11 13 12 D-06  Scottie Dennison
D-05  Alan Denison Daniel (s1688 IRE - by 1749 AugustaCoVA) 13 24 14 11 11 14 12 12 14 13 13 29 17 9 10 11 11 25 15 19 29 15 15 16 16 11 10 19 23 16 15 17 17 36 37 12 12 11 9 15 16 8 10 10 8 10 10 12 23 23 16 10 12 12 15 8 12 22 20 13 12 11 15 11 11 13 12 35 15 9 17 12 25 26 19 12 12 13 10 10 9 14 12 10 11 11 29 12 14 24 13 10 10 19 15 18 13 23 18 12 15 24 12 23 18 10 14 17 9 12 11 D-05  Alan Denison
D-22  Randle Dennison Daniel (s1688 IRE - by 1749 AugustaCoVA) 13 24 14 11 11 14 12 12 14 13 13 29 17 9 10 11 11 25 15 19 29 15 15 16 16 11 10 19 23 16 15 17 17 36 37 12 12 11 9 15 16 8 10 10 8 10 10 12 23 23 16 10 12 12 15 8 12 22 20 13 12 11 15 11 11 13 12 35 15 9 17 12 25 26 19 12 12 13 10 10 9 14 12 10 11 11 29 12 14 24 13 10 10 19 15 19 13 23 18 12 15 24 12 23 18 10 14 17 9 12 11 D-22  Randle Dennison
D-34  Mary Jane Michael John (c1820 VA - 1856 AugustaCoVA) 13 24 14 11 11 14 12 12 14 13 13 29 17 9 10 11 11 25 15 19 29 15 15 16 16 11 10 19 23 16 15 17 17 36 37 12 12 11 9 15 16 8 10 10 8 10 10 12 23 23 16 10 12 12 15 8 12 22 20 13 12 11 15 11 11 13 12 35 xx 9 17 12 25 26 19 13 12 13 10 10 9 14 12 10 11 11 29 12 14 24 13 10 10 19 15 19 13 23 18 12 15 24 12 23 18 10 14 17 9 12 11 D-34  Mary Jane Michael
D-01  Lane Teaff Scott (c1794 Wash.CoVA-1882 RussellCoVA) 13 24 14 11 11 14 12 12 14 13 13 29 17 9 10 11 11 25 15 19 30 15 15 16 16 11 10 19 23 16 15 18 17 35 37 12 12 11 9 15 16 8 10 10 8 10 10 12 23 23 16 10 12 12 15 8 12 22 20 13 12 11 15 11 11 13 12 D-01  Lane Teaff
D-07  Russell Denison Scott (c1794 Wash.CoVA-1882 RussellCoVA) 13 24 14 11 11 14 12 12 14 13 13 29 17 9 10 11 11 25 15 19 30 15 15 16 16 11 10 19 23 16 15 18 17 35 38 12 12 11 9 15 16 8 10 10 8 10 10 12 23 23 16 10 12 12 15 8 12 22 20 13 12 11 15 11 11 13 12 D-07  Russell Denison
D-04  John Allen Dennison John (say 1770 VA - by 1842) 13 24 14 11 11 14 12 12 14 13 13 29 17 9 10 11 11 25 15 19 29 15 15 16 16 11 10 19 23 15 15 18 18 35 37 12 12 11 9 15 16 8 10 10 8 10 10 12 23 23 16 10 12 12 15 8 12 22 20 13 12 11 15 11 11 13 12 D-04  John Allen Dennison
D-20  Tee Branch Hugh (c1784 coTyroneIRE - 1871 NY) 13 24 14 11 11 14 12 12 13 13 13 29 17 9 10 11 11 25 14 19 29 15 15 16 16 11 10 19 23 16 15 18 18 36 37 12 12 22 13 D-20  Tee Branch
D-02  Cindy Denniston genealogy says Scott; DNA says otherwise 13 24 14 11 11 14 12 12 13 13 13 29 17 9 10 11 11 25 15 19 29 14 15 16 16 11 10 19 23 17 15 18 18 35 35 12 12 11 9 15 16 8 10 10 8 10 10 12 23 23 16 10 12 12 15 8 12 22 20 13 12 11 15 11 11 13 12 D-02  Cindy Denniston

You may click on highlighted Project#s (like D-05) to see the posted pedigree for a particular test subject. Click on highlighted Researcher names, like Alan Denison to go to the project directory that shows the full names of the members, and provides clickable e-mail links for the names highlighted there.

The test subject whose “Earliest Known Ancestor” is colored red is the one whose haplotype differs the least from all the others and is therefore designated the Root Prototype Haplotype (RPH)—the haplotype that is likely to be the closest to that of the Most Recent Common Ancestor (MRCA) of the group. Marker values that deviate from those of the RPH are deemed to be mutations, and are highlighted in lime green—or tomato, for multistep mutations. Markers with null values, due to deletions, are rendered in dark seagreen.

Where the multicopy markers DYS464 and YCA (each taken as a whole) diverge in value from those of the RPH, the whole adjacent set of values will be colored yellow green, and will be counted as a single mutation. In the same way, reclOH mutations, which may affect several blocks of separated markers, will be colored orange and treated all as a single mutation for purposes of calculating Genetic Distance.

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